Nursing Theories


Overview of Neuman’s system’s model and King Goal attainment theory

Theories of nursing are the factors that make nursing a profession. Nursing theory is a part of nursing education that is forgotten by many learners. All the nursing theories guide the nurses on what is right in their area of work. The philosophy of various nurses, work ethics, behavior, and treatment of patients all fall under the nursing theories.

Various authors have come up with several theories that make nursing attain its professional look. These theories tend to guide and provide a specific direction on various aspects of nursing, for instance, research and education aspect of nursing. This research is majorly based on two theories of nursing, although there are several nursing theories.

The first theory is known as Neuman's system's model. This theory was coined by Betty Neuman. Neuman came up with this theory so as to give a structure for disseminating information about people in one holistic manner. The Neuman's model is made up of basic energy resources and structure that provides for the core survival. She proposed that the core is surrounded by the lines of resistance. The lines of resistance are activated by the presence of a stressor in the system. The lines of resistance are surrounded by lines of defense. The lines of defense normally protect the lines of resistance from any negative impact of the stressors. Finally, the outermost boundary is known as the flexible line of defense. This line is tasked with responding to any initial attack by the stressor. These lines or levels incorporate the five major client variables, that is, psychological, physiological, socio-cultural, spiritual, and developmental variables. There also exist three environments, that is created, external, and internal environment. There are also exist three levels of prevention just like any other system, they are, primary, secondary, and tertiary level of prevention. Reconstitution and reaction are less clearly defined by Neuman in this theory. Neuman gives her own approach which fits well with the nursing profession. Intervention deals with maintaining the system and retaining the system through the three prevention systems. The primary prevention protects the normal defense line, as well as giving strength to the flexible line of defense. "Secondary prevention strengthens the internal line of resistance by increasing resistance factors" in response to reducing the reaction. Lastly, tertiary prevention deals with stability and re-adaptation and protects reconstitution which arises due to treatment.

The second theory of interest is called King Goal attainment theory. The theory was developed by Imogene M. King. Imogene developed a theory of goal attainment and general system framework. The system is composed of three systems: personal, which is also called individual, group or interpersonal, and lastly, the society or social. Goal attainment theory focuses on the importance of interaction, self, perception, role, communication, stress, growth and development, time, transaction, and personal space. King based his emphasis on the role played by both the client and the nurse in bringing a cordial relationship in achieving goals. Kings theory is further supported by research which states that when the nurse and the client work together, goals are likely to be achieved easily. King’s theory can be practiced by noting that goals can be achieved by both parties after interacting which is affected by stress, judgment, time, growth and development, perception, and personal space. Goals are only achievable after the nurse and the client interact and address these factors affecting interaction.

Similarities of Neuman’s system’s model and King Goal attainment theory

Neuman's system model and King Goal Attainment theory of nursing have various similarities. Both theories talk about three factors that control interaction of individuals. Neuman talks about three lines and three levels of prevention, while King talks about three systems that are personal, interpersonal and society. The two theories aim at providing the clients with a good environment, one that is free of stress and has good patient-nurse relationship. In goal attainment theory and system model theory, the nurse can only obtain the ideas behind the theories through creating a good relationship with the clients. The two theories are also similar in that they both try to deal with the client's well being in the process of reconstitution.

Differences between the theories Neuman’s system’s model and King Goal attainment theory

Whereas the Neuman's model is made up of basic energy resources and structure that provides for the core survival, Imogene's theory talks of goal attainment and general system framework. Neuman's model deals with the relationship between the environment and the client while in Goal Attainment theory "the focus is on the relationship between the nurse and the client".

Neuman talks about three lines or levels incorporate the five major client variables, that is, psychological, physiological, socio-cultural, spiritual, and developmental variables within a nursing institution while Imogene Goal attainment theory focuses on the importance of interaction, self, perception, role, communication, stress, growth and development, time, transaction, and personal space. The system model theory mainly focuses on the environment. The theory states that the environment within which the patient is in should be manipulated so as to create the optimum condition of the patient necessary for reconstruction. The goal attainment theory is mainly focused on the patient.

Other related theories

Neuman's theory is closely related to Roger's Science of Unitary Human Beings. The theory also talks about the relationship between the environment and humans in trying to recover. Roger's explains that integrality is a continuous process of the environment and human interaction. Just like the three lines in Neuman's theory, Rogers comes up with three principles of resonancy, helicy, and integrality. Both theories encompass the relationship between the environment and humans in the nursing aspect.

King Goal attainment theory is related to unitary human beings theory by Martha Roger. Roger believes that nursing should be aimed at promoting symphonic interaction between the environment and the person. The environment in this scenario refers to the health care system and the nurses while the person is the patient. This will provide a desirable environment for the patients necessary for the conditions. The theory is also related to Watson Human Caring Theory. The theory focuses on the interpersonal relationship between a client and a nurse in trying to come up with solutions.

Application of these theories in practice

The King’s goal attainment theory states that nursing is a process that involves interaction, reaction, and action. This will entail the nurses and patients share important information about the perception with regards to the nursing situation. In the system model theory by Betty Neuman, she states that the concern of the nurses should be aimed at preventing stress invasion in patients. If the nurse is not in a position of preventing the stress, then he or she should focus on protecting the basic structure of the patients. Through this, a maximum level of wellness should be maintained or obtained. The two theories aim at providing the clients with a good environment, one that is free of stress and has good patient-nurse relationship. Creation of a good environment is necessary for the patient reconstitution in this theory. In goal attainment theory and system model theory, the nurse can only obtain the ideas behind the theories through creating a good relationship with the clients. The system model theory states that the environment within which the patient is in should be manipulated so as to create the optimum condition of the patient. The goal attainment theory is mainly focused on the patient. King Goal Attainment theory can also be applied to the aspect of good and proper interaction between the nurse and the patient. When the interaction and communication are utilized, goals are likely to be achieved faster by the nurse and the client.

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